Caryophyllene is the primary terpene that contributes to the spiciness of black pepper and also a major terpene in cloves, hops, rosemary, basil, and cannabis


  • Analgesic – Relieves pain.
  • Antibacterial – Slows bacterial growth.
  • Antidepressant – Relieves symptoms of depression.
  • Anti-inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
  • Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.
  • Antioxidant – Prevents oxidation damage to other molecules in the body.
  • Anxiolitic – Helps relieve anxiety.
  • Neuroprotective – Slows damage to the nervous system and brain.